Aicar, also known as AICA ribonucleotide or by its full name of 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, is an intermediate within the generation of inosine monophosphate. It can sometimes be referred to as Acadesine or ZMP. It functions as an AMP-activated protein kinase agonist. This means that it promotes the utilization of nutrient stores for the production of energy.
The Functionality of AICAR
Scientific research conducted on animal test subjects has determined that AICAR can enter cardiac cells and prevent the production of the enzymes adenosine kinase (ADK) and adenosine deaminase (ADA). The former enzyme catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-phosphate from ATP to adenosine, which serves as a regulator of aggregations of both extracellular and intracellular adenine nucleotides. The latter enzyme breaks down adenosine which in turn is responsible for the turnover in nucleic acids in tissues. The process of this particular peptide acts to stimulate glucose uptake as well as increase the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases α and β in the tissue of skeletal muscle. It also suppresses aptosis by lessening the production of oxygen compounds found within the cell.
Theoretical Benefits of AICAR
According to scientific research that has been conducted on animal test subjects, it has been determined that AICAR is linked to several theoretical benefits.
The primary benefit that has been theorized in relation to AICAR is for the protection and treatment in relation to cardiac ischemic injury. This type of ailment is caused due to a restriction of blood supply to tissues, which in turn causes insufficient amounts of oxygen and glucose that is needed to conduct proper cellular metabolism, that is, to keep the tissue found in animal test subjects alive. While ischemic conditions can manifest itself throughout the body in the form of ailments such as vasoconstriction, embolism, or thrombosis, cardiac ischemic injury is directly related to the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. While this condition can sometimes be asymptomatic, it is often marked by chest pain brought on by angina pectoris, also known as a lack of sufficient blood flow to the brain.
Because of the mechanisms of AICAR, scientific research on animal test subjects have led to the determination that the peptide can potentially aid in prohibiting the restriction of blood flow that would otherwise be part of an ischemic injury. In the case of a cardiac ischemic condition, this would lessen the prohibitions of blood flow to the heart muscle, thus partially reducing the risk of heart failure. Additionally, it has been theorized that AICAR can be used in conjunction with treatment in the aftermath of a heart attack brought on by an ischemic injury. The theory here is that it would promote an increase in the blood flow to the heart muscle, thus stabilizing it as it recovers.
Other theoretical benefits that have been linked to AICAR through scientific research based on animal test subjects include:
- Increased endurance – because AICAR assists in enabling blood to flow through the circulatory system on a freer basis, this means that cells can receive energy more efficiently. This in turn enables for animal test subjects to perform at a higher level of activity for a longer interval of time.
- Increased rate of fat burning – Because the cells of animal test subjects are receiving energy on a much more efficient basis, their bodies show a tendency to break down adispose tissue faster as a means to compensate for this increase efficiency. Scientific research has determined that this theoretical benefit is only effective if the animal test subject stays on a regulated diet and does not experience an increased intake of food.
Side Effects of AICAR
Scientific research conducted on animal test subjects has also yielded potential side effects in relation to the use of AICAR. Most of these side effects include issues relating to the heart, and have been theorized to range from anywhere between the development of defects in heart valves to pulmonary hypertension and the abnormal growth of heart tissue.
For Scientific Research Only
It should be noted that all study and research in relation to AICAR and its functionality, operational mechanics, theoretical benefits, and theoretical side effects, are all based on current clinical study built around animal test subjects. It is solely intended for the use of scientific research at this time. Therefore, any findings or observations relating to AICAR’s overall mechanisms, operational tendencies, benefits, or side effects should be solely contained to the restrictions of a strictly controlled environment such as a medical research facility or a laboratory.