Aica Ribonucleotide is a peptide whose technical name is 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide. It is available for purchase for the purposes of scientific study on animal test subjects under several different names, such as ZMP, AICAR, and Acadesine. It is presented in white powder form, and contains a molecular weight of 338.211162. Aica Ribonucleotide is also referred to as Aicar online and in most research communities.
How Aica Ribonucleotide Works
According to scientific study on animal test subjects, Aica Ribonucleotide’s mechanics allow for the acceleration of metabolic processes within animal test subjects. These accelerations manifest themselves in the following methods:
- Increased glucose uptake – Aica Ribonucleotide has been determined to boost glycogen synthesis, which in turn leads to an increased synthesis of the proteins that are responsible for skeletal muscle building and repair.
- Decreased Insulin Resistance – The peptide contains the ability to be able to bock the receptors that would normally inhibit the intake of insulin; the peptide that is responsible for the causation of cells in the liver, skeletal muscles, and fat tissue to absorb glucose from the blood. This blocking of such inhibitions allows for an elevated take of glucose intake, which in turn allows for a more efficient energy conversion process. This in turn allows for an elevated rate of metabolic processes relating to the muscular and skeletal structures found in animal test subjects.
- More Efficient Regulation of Energy – Because of Aica Ribocluneotide’s ability to accelerate the synthesis of glycogen, scientific study on animal test subjects has determined that the peptide can control the distribution and usage of energy in a more efficient manner. This increased efficiency has been tied to several benefits as they relate to several functions regarding an animal test subjects’ body, including a boost of endurance and an increased facility to burn fat.
Aica Ribonucleotide’s Relationship with Cardiac Ischemic Injuries
While scientific research conducted on animal test subjects has determined that Aica Ribonucleotide’s ability to expedite the subjects’ metabolic processes, the peptide’s efficient nature has caused study to especially hone in on its potential effects relating to cardiac ischemic injuries.
At its base point, a cardiac ischemic injury is classified as an affliction whose cause is tied to a restriction of blood supply to tissues. This in turn causes an insufficient amount of glucose and oxygen to be delivered in order to maintain a regulated amount of cellular functionality within the heart muscle. Without proper cellular functionality, the heart starts to fail.
Primarily, cardiac ischemic injuries are directly brought on by a condition known as angina pectoris. This condition, routinely referred to as angina, is characterized by an insufficient amount of blood flow to the heart. This insufficient blood flow translates into an insufficient amount of oxygen and glucose being provided to heart muscle cells, which in turn causes the heart to malfunction. However, angina pectoris can sometimes be asymptomatic in its presentation. This condition could lead to a host of serious heart-related elements, up to and including cardiac arrest.
The scientific study based on animal test subjects has led to the theory that Aica Ribonucleotide’s ability to improve the metabolic processes within a subjects’ body would lessen the restriction of blood flow to the heart muscle, creating a more consistent sense of regulation in the process. This would theoretically enable a partially reduced risk of angina pectoris from occurring and, by extension, a reduced risk of heart failure. Additional theories based on such scientific study on animal test subjects link the peptide as a potential ally in regards to treating a heart attack that was caused by a cardiac ischemic episode. The reason for this theory also ties to Aica Ribonucleotide’s ability to lessen the restriction of blood flow to the heart, as an increase in blood flow – and subsequently and increase in glucose and oxygen getting to cardiac cells – would aid in stabilizing the heart as it recovers from an ischemic episode.
Other Notes on Aica Ribonucleotide’s Functionality
There are two things that should be noted in relation to Aica Ribonucleotide’s usage and functionality. The first is that scientific study on animal test subjects has determined that a few side effects have been linked to the peptide, including some serious side effects linked to the heart muscle. The more serious side effects include:
- Development of heart valve defects
- Pulmonary hypertension
- Abnormal growth of heart tissue
Secondly, it should be noted that Aica Ribonucleotide is currently in the research phase. Any study or research based on the peptide should be relegated to animal test subjects and within the strict confines of a controlled environment such as a medical research facility or a laboratory.
A variety of peptides are becoming more available on the market today. While peptides are not yet approved for human use, research has indicated that these chemicals have a strong potential for managing different conditions through pharmaceutical application in the future. Research today focuses greatly on identifying new peptides, determining if these chemicals match the reactions seen in animal test subjects, determining if these peptides can be harvested or recreated and observing the effects of applying peptides to test subjects.
As research continues these peptides are gaining attention in the public market, which is making it easier for research facilities to get the tools they require.
Peptide research is quickly becoming one of the largest branches of pharmaceutical research worldwide. There are a number of laboratories that focus solely on this type of research, both in conducting their own experiments and preparing tools and research that can be used by other companies to further the study of animal peptides.
Much of the research that is being created by these companies is being shared to ensure that new discoveries are not being repeated, wasting time and resources. Working together also allows research firms to sell the products they have developed to other experimenters, guaranteeing a higher quality product and shortening the time it takes to confirm results.
Large Application Peptides
Peptides that are produced in large batches can be purchases, often at a lower price than purchasing individual applications because of the altering designs used to create these chemicals.
- Peptides that can be produced in large quantities can only be sold to customers if a certain level of purity can be confirmed. This helps to ensure consistency throughout the peptide sample so it can be applied over time and in a variety of application sizes with somewhat predictable results.
- If there are errors in a large batch of peptides it can result in data sets that cannot be used as a benchmark for further study. This can cost research facilities and the peptide research community a great deal of money as they need to repeat experiments to confirm findings when they could otherwise be given more credit.
- The methods for creating large application sizes of peptides have become increasingly refined which has greatly lowered the cost of investing in these peptide sets for research. This, in turn, is increasing the accuracy of data because peptide experiments can be run on larger groups of test subjects as well as in larger amounts of repeat studies over time.
Peptides are very fragile, so if buying large quantities of peptides it is important to take adequate precautions to ensure that they maintain their purity for as long as possible. Peptides are typically designed to be kept at cold temperatures when they are not in use. The specific temperature that is considered ideal for a given peptide should be noted on the container.
Bring any amount of peptide you plan to use up to temperature slowly and wait until it has reached the appropriate temperature before reconstituting an application. Keep any amount of peptide that will not be used immediately frozen as constant thawing and refreezing will damage the structure of the amino acids.
Understanding Purity Testing
It is not uncommon to see peptide companies advertising purity levels on their websites and sale pages, but it is important to understand the methodology that is used to determine these purity standards for best results in peptide research with these products.
- There are different methodologies that are used to create peptide bonds in synthetic forms. These different methods will yield different results when they are completed. Different methodologies are more or less effective depending on the type of peptide that the laboratory is creating and how it is designed to function when it is applied to animal tissues later.
- HPLC is a method that combines a variety of compounds and analyzes how they break down to determine what components were included in this mixture. This methodology is not designed to identify specific compounds or to provide you with the Dalton mass of compounds for cross referencing.
- Those that are already aware of the compounds that went into a mixture can use this methodology as a means of determining the purity of the mixture, though this is less effective if there are multiple compounds in the mixture. This should be noted if a sales site claims that it uses this methodology as a means of testing purity because the end result may not be particularly accurate.
- SDS page refers to sodium gel electrophoresis that is commonly used in chemistry, forensics or genetics as a means of identifying compounds. In this case proteins are separated using electrophoretic mobility that divides the electric charges in the polypeptide chains. This will create a band in a gel sequence that can be used to identify proteins that exist at different weights. This is ideal for identifying proteins or peptides that are well known because a specific weight distribution can be checked to determine if these peptides are present. While SDS page is essential for determining if specific peptides are present it cannot be used to determine how much of a compound is present in a given sample.
- Mass spectrometry can be used when single spectrum masses of molecules need to be displayed for an individual sample. This is considered to be the most accurate way of measuring the purity of a sample of peptides used for research. This method determines the elemental composition of a peptide sample by checking the molecule mass weight. If researchers are aware of the goal weight their sample should be, this can be used to see how accurate the given sample is, which is essential when creating variants of a given peptide.
The only true way to determine accuracy beyond doubt is to perform a full amino acid analysis because this will show the percentage of amino acids present and whether or not this matches up with what a sample should be. This is not considered feasible for bulk productions of peptides, though random samplings may be taken for a full amino acid analysis to check that a production method is producing accurate results.
Buying Peptides from a Trustworthy Source
Given the wide variance in quality that can stem from different production methods, it is important to perform careful research when selecting a company to purchase peptides from.
- Maxim avoids making any claims regarding the purity of peptide compounds unless they have been tested for these purity levels.
- All peptides have been created with the intention of being used in a research setting, meaning there is a higher requirement for purity and accuracy of the compound.
- No peptides are sold in constituted form. This helps to ensure that they remain stable during shipping and can be stored for a longer length of time before use.
Like any type of research product, all instructions for the use and storage of a peptide should be read carefully both before a final purchase is made and before the peptide is used in a laboratory setting.
Maintaining the proper temperature profile, keeping the peptide in a sterile, sealed container and applying them to animal test subjects in the proper size applications can help to ensure that the peptide behaves properly without jeopardizing the accuracy of any results that stem from these trials. All information necessary to follow these steps should be included with every purchase.
PEAKS Database Search Tutorial on Peptide Identification
Melanotan is a peptide that is produced in the body as a way of making an animal’s skin tan. This is used as a response to exposure to UV rays to protect the animal’s body against skin cancer and other damage. This chemical has been synthesized as melanotan 2, which was developed by researchers at the University of Arizona. This synthetic analog mimics the behaviors of the melanocortin peptide hormone alpha-melaocyte stimulating hormone. The synthetic version of this peptide has been found to produce similar melanogenesis effects and aphrodisiac effects in animal test subjects, in the initial clinical trials that have been performed. To date, no compounds that contain melanotan 2 peptides have been approved for human use as clinical trials are still ongoing. However, initial research indicates that this peptide may be very useful in preventing a variety of cancers and other diseases if the effects of it can be regulated to minimize side effects. This has increased the desire for bulk purchases of this peptide. There are a variety of ways to secure melanotan 2 for research purposes, but a great deal of care will need to be given in order to ensure that the product you purchase is the proper quality for this purpose.
Warnings for Melanotan Shoppers
Because products containing melanotan have not been approved for the public market, the variety of products that claim to contain these ingredients actually don’t.
- Products that contain any form of melanotan 2 are not allowed to be sold for human use; there are a variety of items online that claim to contain this ingredient because they have been manufactured in markets that do not have a ban on melanotan.
- In many cases these products contain fraudulent ingredients that are designed to mimic the effects of melanotan 2 to take advantage of less than credible customers. There are a variety of regulatory bodies that are currently attempting to catalogue these products and issue a warning to those that might attempt to purchase them due to the severe risk of interacting with these unknown chemical mixes.
- Those that are investing in melanotan as part of a research study can save a great deal of money and time by purchasing stores of melanotan from internet retailers, but the same risks that are posed to customers attempting to bend the rules may apply to these research facilities as well. If a product claims to contain melanotan 2, but is actually a counterfeit product, it could throw off research results. This could also pose a danger for animal test subjects which could experience unpredictable side effects that could be life threatening.
In order to eliminate the risk of working with counterfeit products during research, scientists should only purchase melanotan 2 from companies that are certified to sell research quality peptides. These products will be sterilized and contain a specific list of the methods used to create the peptide so that researchers can ensure that they can predict how these chemicals will behave in chemical trials when they are applied to animal test subjects. This will also ensure that any bulk purchases are consistent to avoid any potential for an alteration of reactions during clinical trials that cannot be accounted for. Evolution of Melanotan Development Pilot studies using cylic heptapeptide analogs of aMSH and melanotan 2 have found to have super potent melanotropic activities in vitro.
- Aingle blind studies utilizing alternating day trials with placebo controlled trials were conducted on male animal test subjects with initial applications of .01mg/kg of melanotan 2. Subcutaneous injections of saline or melantotan 2 were applied daily during weekdays for two weeks.
- Two of the test subjects saw an increase in the increments of melanotan applications with .0005, .03 and .025mg/kg applications given throughout the length of the study. In these two subjects, .03mg/kg applications and higher were found to cause fatigue and somnolence.
- Test subjects given applications of melanotan also showed signs of mild nausea at most dosing levels. Stretching and yawning complex appeared to correlate with applications around 1-5 hours after the chemical was applied. However, the length of time between these reactions appeared to correlate with the size of the application of melanotan 2 that was provided.
Of the three test subjects that were used in this study, two saw increased pigmentation around the face and upper body which was determined by comparing pictures of the test subjects against visual perception a week into the study. This was also compared a week after applications of melanotan 2 had ceased. These results help to demonstrate the tanning ability of melanotan 2 at 5 low applications up to 5 days of subcutaneous injections can provide. It is currently recommended for future animal research that applications begin at single applications of .025mg/kg a day in animal test subjects, though this can be increased– based on the animal’s reaction to the chemical and the size of the test subject.
Additional Considerations for Melanotan Research
Much of the research surrounding melanotan focuses on mimicking the peptides that are naturally found in animal skin, but there are some uses for this product that could pose for additional promise for the future use of melanotan 2 products.
- Melanotan was initially designed to mimic the chemicals in an animal’s body that are used to darken the skin tone as a protective barrier against UV rays from the sun. This pigment can also be released after the skin is damaged, which can lead to the pigmentation which is shown in an area that has been scarred, though this is an effect that need not be replicated in a pharmaceutical setting.
- If this reaction can be mimicked with an artificial version of melanotan 2 it could be used as a means of tanning the skin to prevent damage, including skin cancer, which is caused by overexposure to the sun. Some would also like to use melanotan 2 for cosmetic reasons, causing the skin to take on an attractive tan color without the unnecessary risks that are associated with staying out in the sun or using tanning beds.
- At this time melanotan has not been developed to the point where it can create a controlled reaction by an animal’s body, which is restricting researcher’s ability to release products containing this peptide to the public.
Because melanocortin naturally has a very short half-life, the peptide has been altered to create melanotan 2. This altered chemical composition has been found to be helpful in creating a peptide that has a longer shelf life and effectiveness when exposed to the bloodstream. These altered chemical bonds within the peptide have been found to have alternative effects, when exposed to animal tissues. This altered reaction may be helpful in allowing this peptide to be used for previously unpredicted chemical reactions. Melanotan has been found to cause a variety of side effects in test subjects during clinical trials. Even low applications in animals could cause nausea, stretching and yawning. Male animals have also been found to experience spontaneous penile erections when they are exposed to melanotan 2 applications. These side effects on their own are not typically considered to be dangerous for test subjects involved in this research, but it is believed that larger applications could impact the severity of these side effects, which should be accounted for when working with a variety of animals during study.