Aica ribonucleotide is a common name for the peptide 5-aminoimidaxole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide. This is a generation of inosine monophosphate which is in the intermediate stages of development. The more common abbreviation for this chemical is AICAR, though it is perhaps more accurate to refer to it as Aica ribonucleotide, given its actions when applied to live animal tissue. This is also known as ZMP, which is used for its advantages in stimulating protein kinase activity (AMP-dependent), also known as AMPK.
Aica ribonucleotide is being investigated for its potential clinical use of protecting an animal from cardiac ischemic injury. If this condition is left untreated then it could cause a myocardial infarct, which has the potential to be fatal without intervention. Cardia ischemia is typically caused from insufficient blood flow or oxygen to an animal’s myocardium.
Aica ribonucleotide was originally presented as a solution for this difficulty in the 1980s because it had the potential to preserve the blood flow to the heart which was ceased during surgery in this area. Current research has also shown the potential of this chemical to manage the symptoms of diabetes in animals by helping to increase metabolic activity of the tissues that can change the physical composition of the muscle tissue.
Mechanisms of Aica Ribonucleotide
Aica ribonucletide is commonly produced under the name acadesine: this is generally the name used in order to publish consistent research on the subject.
- Aica ribonucleotide is a version of the chemical adenosine which is designed to inhibit the adenosine deaminase and adenosine kinase, as it enters into the cardiac cells.
- The presence of acia ribonucleotide can help with the re-synthesis which increases the adenosine generation from the adenosine monosophates which are present, though this will only occur during conditions which are condusive with myocardial ischemia.
In some cardiac myocytes, aica riboside can be phosphorylated into aica-ribotide, also known as ZMP. This can activate the existing AMPK within the animal’s body— without the need to change the nucleotide levels in this area. This way, ZMP is given access to the de novo synthesis pathways which are used for adenosine synthesis: it can also be used to inhibit adenosine deaminase which will cause adenosine and ATP levels to increase throughout the animal’s body.
Potential Medical Applications
Aica ribonucleotide is being researched for its potential applications in humans in a medical setting, as a means of addressing a variety of cardiac conditions.
- It has been noted that following periods of coronary arterial occlusion in animals are immediately followed by a prolonged ischemia, which is known as preconditioning. This has been seen as a protective condition.
- Preconditioning which precedes a myocardial infarction could delay the death of cells in this area which will make it easier to salvage the myocardium of the animal using reperfusion therapy.
- Aica ribonucleotide has been found to be an effective chemical that can precondition an animal just before or during an episode of ischemia. Aica ribonucleotide can trigger an anti-inflammatory response during preconditioning that will increase NO production which develops from the ischemic leukocyte-endothelial cell.
- Aica ribonucleotide preconditioning can also be mediated using ATP-sensitive potassium channels that are also utilizing hemoxygenase-dependent mechanisms. This increase in AMPK-dependent recruitment of the ATP-sensitive potassium channels will react with the sarcolemma which will cause action potential that could prevent an overload of calcium which is at risk during reperfusion.
- Decreases in calcium overload during these episodes can reduce the risk of inflammation or activation of the ROS.
The presence of aica ribonucleotide will also increase glucose uptake (AMPK-dependent). This is done by translocating the GLUT-4 molecules throughout an animal’s body, which can be beneficial to the heart when it is experiencing an episode of post-ischemic reperfusion. This increase in glucose which occurs during preconditioning using aica ribonucleotide will lengthen the time that preconditioning can occur by two hours when performed in rabbits that are experiencing coronary ligation.
Results like this help scientists to estimate that aica ribonucleotide may reduce the size and frequency of myocardial infarcts by a quarter in humans by improving blood flow to the heart during this event, though this is only an estimate, based on results seen in animal studies. Applications of this chemical have also been shown to help animals improve from surgery, resulting from an ischemic injury.
Purchasing synthesized peptides for a research setting must be taken with care in order to ensure that these products are suitable for the nature of your research. For that purpose, seek out suppliers that specialize in research with live test subjects, making sure that these applications will be safe and provide consistent results for those that are going to perform long-term research activities. Most suppliers that provide research grade products will provide contact information to individuals that would like to know more about the specifics of these chemicals.